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État de siège (L'Americano / The invisible insurrection) 1973 Costa-Gavras

Content: Uruguay 1972 - in the entire country there is a state of emergency. Feverishly looking for the police and the army after the kidnapped Americans Philip Michael Santore (Yves Montand). But while the roadside lead to any results, it is a lonely parked car, the knowledge brings - in his fund is the body of an aid worker who was killed by the "Tupamaros", after the government had not responded to their demand that jailed members the underground movement in exchange to leave.

When a few days earlier, Santore, together with the Brazilian ambassador was kidnapped, aroused the wonder, for they turned the general question of why the "Tupamaros" for their interrogation, the results to the public later used to inform a development worker was kidnapped. Above all, the journalist Carlos Ducas (OEHasse) begins to investigate with responsible authorities react visibly nervous during the police force under the command of Captain Lopez (Renato Salvatori) is putting on Santore get free as soon as possible. Parallel interrogate members the "Tupamaros" the Americans and confront him with his real task in the South American country ...

Looking at Costa-Gavras major works of contemporary political thriller, based on the 1969 turned "Z" about a year later formed "L'aveu" (La Confession / The Confession) to its first American movie "Missing" (Missing) in 1981, then you can feel his search for an answer to the same question - how can a totalitarian state emerge and persist, even though he is going the liberties of its citizens limits and against all resistance by force?

be as clear as detailed analysis can not hide that Costa-Gavras unmasked with his films, although the motives, strategies, and internal relations of the perpetrators, but not the reaction of the bourgeoisie. So exactly one conspiracy and propaganda methods can also search, so little can be inferred from this causal implications, because the people always remain an unknown. Its very different approaches to basically the same theme, apart from the contemporary and geographical references at once, are therefore only of a general intention to - the viewer a possible complex Description of the development of a democratic state to a dictatorship way to keep in mind that such an occurrence in the future, at least more difficult.

The development that took his political thriller in their production form, but also the intended target group, according to an image of her time. "Z" was his most personal film, in spite of his general, avoid private details of analysis, could not hide the fact that Costa-Gavras here to tell his own story and that of his home country Greece. How much he confronted it, can be calculated from the conclusion of the film be read, resulting in subsequent films, which also gives the first could. In order to get funding at all for the film, Jacques Perrin founded specifically for this production company and Yves Montand took a starring role without a fee (like most other actors).

In "L'aveu" Costa-Gavras took a complete turn in the staging, by relying on a political character (again played by Yves Montand) as victims focused on the example he interrogation - and torture methods of a totalitarian regime - here the Stalinist USSR - analyzed. After the production of this film for the first time participated Italian firms, this group extended to "the invisible Uprising "on a German production company. It is also the parallels to the political films of Italian directors clearly, for the Italian production company EIA is equally active in Damiano Damiani's film" Il giorno della Civetta (The Day of the Owl) and " Confessions di un Commissario di polizia al procuratore della Repubblica (The clan that einmauerte his enemies alive), and in Elio Petri's "La classe operaia va in paradiso" (The working class comes into Paradise). W when he also produced Italian-German-French political thriller La Smagliatura " (The third degree) of 1976, three actors took over from the respective countries of production one of the leading roles - Yves Montand as the kidnapped victims, the American aid worker Philip Michael Santore, Renato Salvatori as Uruguayan police chief Carlos Lopez as a journalist and OEHasse Dukas. The Costa-Gavras not - as usual today - back to authentic country people attacked, but only filmed in French, was due to the team that the production of films for the first allowed.

That changed with "Missing", which was produced in the United States and occupied exclusively with the native speakers was. In this film portrays Costa-Gavras, the consequences of dictatorship from the perspective of a victim, plus an American who falls almost by accident in the mills of the (Chilean) police force. This has earned him the unjust accusations of trivialisation. It can be seen in "Missing" is the attempt to reach a target group by the first time not only those directly involved - whether on the political side or in the resistance - in the center of attention, but described a private, also an emotional experience fate.

"The Invisible Insurrection occupies a special position in this series, although superficially the film in his production of" Z "oriented and a similar Kaleidoscope developed, consisting of the views of the different stakeholders and their methods - politicians, journalists, businessmen, diplomats, military and police. Amidst this ever-changing, of eloquent speeches, accompanied locations, is a haven - a center of the Uruguayan urban guerrilla "Tupamaros", in which there is a trial, that principle of "L'aveu" (The Confession), remembers only with the opposite sign . Here the state power is not questioned, but the underground movement hijacked their victims, which is becoming a perpetrator of the actual out. The later consequences for the American Santore (Yves Montand) hidden Costa-Gavras, because the film begins when his body is found, before the events of the beginning of the abduction, it winds up slowly.

For the public, it is surprising kidnapped why with Santore a harmless aid workers was that also calls for journalists Dukas (OEHasse) on the plan, carrying out parallel to the interrogation of the resistance group's own investigations. Combined with further expansions, in part, rigorous scenes when trained as in a lecture hall on a living example of torture methods were developed, Costa-Gavras in an exciting process a coherent, from different Angles resulting document about the actual role of the Santore development worker alleged that the overt support of totalitarian systems to maintain their own commercial interests by the United States reveals.

The Costa-Gavras' sympathies of the "Tupamaros" belongs, can not be overlooked. It is not only the interrogation, which is characterized by fairness and convincing arguments that force Santore finally to admit its actual function, but also the other non-violent presence, from which they accept only distance in an emergency. Even the execution Santore (the other kidnapped victims are left blank) describes Costa-Gavras as a grass-roots act by having the members vote on it. Significantly, it shows the murder is not in the picture, as opposed to a large number of executions by the police under the leadership of Captain Lopez (Renato Salvatori). Behind it, while some legitimacy of assassination as a counter-reaction, but Costa-Gavras does not use this to glorification of the Resistance, but shows it is more than desperate, ultimately senseless act that is intended to prevent only to show external weakness, while even the successor Santor enters the stage.

Basically - and this is an outstanding feature of the film - Costa-Gavras was only possible with the reality - a reality that it finally caught up with itself. In fact, understood the "Tupamaros" long time as a peaceful movement, before the beginning of the 70 years of radical measures were abducted and forced victims to confess, they then have informed the public - without consequences for the government. In 1971 the leftists lost the elections and "The Invisible Insurrection" was filmed in 1972, were the most leaders of the "Tupamaros" already in prison. The atmospheric density and realistic impression of a South American country on the brink of dictatorship Costa-Gavras achieved not only by this fatalistic knowledge, but also by the location of Chile, then under the communist Allende government.

The film is much talk about Brazil and the Dominican Republic, which had been found prior to Uruguay as a good student of U.S. teaching methods, but was turned off only a year after "The Invisible Insurrection was , and Chile under Augusto Pinochet followed. By the same date had been "The Invisible Insurrection - No matter what position one takes in detail to certain details - legitimized in its general intent.

"État de siège" France, Italy, Germany, 1973, Director: Costa-Gavras , writer: Costa-Gavras, Franco Solinas, Starring: Yves Montand , Renato Salvatori, OEHasse, Jacques Weber, Evangeline Peterson, Running time: 115 minutes


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